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    Children in Islam…Rights and Duties

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    Children in Islam…Rights and Duties

    Post by ???? on Sun Aug 21, 2011 11:16 am

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    Children and Impact of the Environment on Raising Them

    Children
    in Islam are the joy of life and sight of the sore eyes. Islam paid a
    special attention to children and the Islamic sharia stated that
    children have rights and duties toward the parents.


    A
    child got the first images of life enshrined in its mind from the
    environment of the parents. The Prophet (PBUH) said: "No child is born
    but has the Islamic Faith, but its parents turn it into a Jew or a
    Christian"[1]. The parents have the greatest influence on children's
    religion and morals. Therefore, children's interests and the future of
    the nation depend on children's righteousness. Accordingly, children's
    rights begin as early as before their birth; choosing a good mother and
    good father, as we have illustrated.


    Children's Pre-Birth Rights
    Protection from the Satan

    If both parties succeeded in choosing each other, the child has a
    right: to be protected from the Satan and this happens when putting the
    father's sperm into the mother's womb. The Prophet (PBUH) told Muslims
    about a prayer they should perform during sexual intercourse, which
    protects the fetus from the Satan. Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with
    him, reported that the Prophet said: "If anyone of you intends to go to
    his wife, says: in the name of Allah, O Allah protect us against Stan
    and keep away the Stan from that you have bestowed upon us, and if it is
    destined that they should have a child, then Satan will never be able
    to harm him."[2]


    Child's Right to Life


    The
    time it develops into a fetus inside its mother's womb, the child gets
    the right to life stated by Islam. Islam prohibits abortion. It is haram
    (forbidden by Islam) for a woman to drop her fetus before its delivery
    because it is a trust given to her by Allah. The fetus has a right to
    life and it is haram to harm or hurt it. The Islamic sharia sees the
    fetus as a human being that must not be killed as soon as it becomes
    four months old and when the soul is breathed into it. There is diyah
    (an obligatory blood money) that must be paid by anyone who kills a
    fetus. Almughira Ibn Shuba said: Allah's Apostle gave his verdict about
    two ladies of the Hudhail tribe who had fought each other and one of
    them had hit the other with a stone. The stone hit her abdomen and as
    she was pregnant, the blow killed the child in her womb. They both filed
    their case with the Prophet (PBUH) and he judged that the blood money
    for what was in her womb. The guardian of the lady who was fined said,
    "O Allah's Apostle! Shall I be fined for a creature that has neither
    drunk nor eaten, neither spoke nor cried? A case like that should be
    nullified." On that the Prophet (PBUH) said, "This is one of the
    brothers of soothsayers.[3]"[4]. So, the Prophet (PBUH) judged the blood
    money for what was in her womb[5]. The relatives of the killer must pay
    the blood money.



    Additionally,
    the Islamic sharia permits pregnant women not to fast in the Muslims'
    holy fasting month of Ramadan for the sake of the fetus' health. Also,
    if a woman committed adultery and she became pregnant, the Islamic
    sharia permits those authorized to execute the punishment of adultery to
    put off the punishment execution until she delivers what is there in
    her womb and completes the newborn's suckling.


    Children's Post-Birth Rights
    Portending Good When They Are Born

    After delivery, Islam put provisions related to their delivery, such as
    portending good for their birth, like the case mentioned in the Quran
    about the delivery of Allah's Apostle Yahya Ibn Zakariya, may Allah be
    pleased with the two of them, Allah exalted He is says: {While he was
    standing in prayer in the chamber, the angels called unto him: "(Allah)
    doth give thee glad tidings of Yahya, witnessing the truth of a Word
    from Allah, and (be besides) noble, chaste, and a prophet,- of the
    (goodly) company of the righteous}[The Family Of 'Imran: 39]and people
    shall portend good and show happiness for the delivery of both male and
    female children, without any discrimination.


    Calling Azan and Iqama in Its Ears
    Among children's post-delivery rights is calling the azan (Islamic call
    to prayer) in a newborn's right ear and the iqama (a second call to
    inform people that prayer starts) in its left ear. Calling azan in the
    right ear of a newborn is desirable for the hadith of Abu Rafie, who
    said: "I saw the Prophet (PBUH) calling azan in the ear of al-Hassan ibn
    Ali (may Allah forgive him) when Fatima (may Allah forgive her) gave
    birth to him."[6]


    Tahneek (Putting Chewed Date in a Newborn's Mouth)
    Another post-delivery right of children is putting well-chewed date in
    the mouth of a newborn[7], a practice was done by the Prophet. Abu
    Musa[8], may Allah forgive him, said: "I had a son and I brought him to
    the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he named him
    Ibrahim. He chewed up a date and gave it to him and made supplication
    for him to be blessed and then gave him back to me."[9]


    Shaving Newborn's Head Hair and Its Weight in Silver is Given as a Charity
    One of a newborn's rights is shaving his hair and giving the weight of
    that shaved hair as a charity in silver. This implies healthy and social
    benefits. Among the healthy benefits: Opening the pores of the
    newborn's head and protecting him from anything unhealthy. Perhaps this
    helps remove the weak hair in order for stronger one to grow. The social
    benefit comes from giving the weight of the shaved hair as a charity.
    This is a practical application of the concept of social solidarity
    among members of the society and this makes the poor happy. Mohamed Ibn
    Ali Ibn al Hussein reported: "Fatimah, the daughter of Allah's Apostle,
    peace be upon him, weighed the shaved hairs of al Hassan and Hussein and
    paid silver equal to the weight of the hairs as
    charity"[10]


    Good Naming
    It is from the teachings of the Messenger of Allah, that each member of
    the family be given a good name. This is one of the top rights of
    children. It is an obligation upon the parents that their children be
    given good names. Giving a child a beautiful and honorable name is very
    important. Allah's Apostle disliked the word harb (war) and hated
    hearing it. The Prophet says: "The names dearest to Allah are Abdulla
    and Abdur Rahman, the truest are Harith (ploughman) and Hammam
    (energetic) and the worst are Harb (war) and Murrah (bitter)"[11]


    Ali,
    may Allah forgive him, said: "When al Hassan was born, I have named him
    Harb. Allah's Apostle, peace be upon him, came and said: "Let me see my
    son. What is the name you have given to him?He (Ali) said: Harb. He
    (the Prophet) replied: "No, he is Hassan". And when al Hussein was born,
    I have named him Harb. The Prophet came and said: "Let me see my son.
    What is the name you have given to him?". Ali answered: Harb. The
    Prophet said: "No, he is Hussein". When the third child was born, I have
    named him Harb. The Prophet came and said: "Let me see my son. What is
    the name you have given to him?" I said: Harb. The Prophet said: "No, he
    is Muhassin", and then he added: "You have named them after the sons of
    Harun: Shabbar, Shabbir and
    Mushabir".[12]


    Aqiqah
    One of children's rights after they are born is the aqiqah (sacrifice
    on occasion of birth). It means the sacrifice of an animal (these were
    also characteristic features of Millat-u-Ibrahim, the religion of the
    Prophet Ibrahim) on the seventh day of the child's delivery. It is a
    confirmed Sunnah (prophetic tradition). It is a kind of showing
    happiness for that newborn. The Prophet, when asked about the aqiqah,
    said: "I do not like disobedience and to whomsoever a child is born and
    he wants to perform a sacrifice of aqiqah on behalf of it, he should
    sacrifice two goats for a boy and one goat for a
    girl"[13]


    Suckling (breastfeeding)
    Suckling is a basic children's right after birth. Breastfeeding has a
    long-term effect on the physical, emotional and social structure in
    one's life. This was realized by the Islamic sharia, so every mother in
    Islam should breastfeed her child for two whole years. This was
    classified as one of the essential basic rights of each newborn child.
    Allah exalted He is says: {The mothers shall give such to their
    offspring for two whole years, if the father desires to complete the
    term. But he shall bear the cost of their food and clothing on equitable
    terms} [The Cow: 233].


    Recent
    health and psychological researches proved that the two-year
    breastfeeding is essential for the child's good development from the
    health and psychological perspectives[14]. But Allah's blessing for the
    Islamic ummah (nation) did not wait for researches and experiments to
    prove the benefits of two-year breastfeeding. It preceded all of them.
    And we notice to what extent the Islamic sharia is concerned with
    breastfeeding by making it one of each newborn's basic rights. Such a
    right, however, is not confined to the mother alone, but the father
    shares it, too. The father's responsibility is that he must provide the
    mother with food and clothes in order for her to be able to take care of
    the kid. Therefore, it is a shared responsibility, with each party
    doing the duty they have to do within the framework designed by this
    noble sharia. This protects the child's right to protection and
    caretaking and this is to be done according to the parents'
    capabilities. Allah exalted He is says: {No soul shall have a burden
    laid on it greater than it can bear} [The Cow: 233].


    Custody and Spending
    One of children’s basic rights to be fulfilled by the parents are
    custody and spending money on them. The Islamic sharia made it
    obligatory on the parents to take care of their children and protect
    their lives and health and to spend money to feed and father them.
    Allah’s Apostle says: “Every one of you is a caretaker, and is
    responsible for his consignment. The ruler is a caretaker of people, and
    is responsible for his subjects. A man is a caretaker of his family,
    and is responsible for them. A woman is a caretaker of her husband's
    house and children, and is responsible for them. A slave is a caretaker
    of his master's property, and is responsible for it.”[15]


    Good Education
    Additionally, one of children’s rights is the good education and
    teaching them the fundamental issues of the religion. As a practical
    method of educating children, the Prophet says: “Command your children
    to pray when they become seven years old, and beat them for it (prayer)
    when they become ten years old; and arrange their beds (to sleep)
    separately”[16]and Allah commanded us to protect ourselves and our
    children from the Hell on the Day of Judgment. Allah exalted He is says:
    {O ye who believe! save yourselves and your families from a Fire whose
    fuel is Men and Stones} [Banning: 6].


    Taking Care of Children Sentimentally and Emotionally
    In addition to this, children should be taken care of sentimentally, by
    doing well to them, having mercy upon them, jesting and bantering with
    them. It was reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, kissed al
    Hassan Ibn Ali in the presence of al Aqra Ibn Habis. Al Aqra said: I
    have ten children and I have never kissed any of them. Allah's Apostle
    cast a look at him and said, "Whoever is not merciful to others will not
    be treated mercifully."[17]


    Shadad
    Ibn al Had (may Allah be pleased with him) quoted his father as saying:
    Allah’s Apostle came out in al-Isha’a prayer (evening prayer) carrying
    either Hassan or Hussein. The Prophet advanced and put him, then started
    praying. The Prophet prostrated and it was a long prostration. My
    father said: I have raised my head during the prayer only to find that
    the little child is climbing over the Prophet’s back while he was
    prostrating. I returned to my prostration. And when Allah’s Apostle
    finished the prayer, some people said: Oh! Allah’s Apostle, you have
    made a long prostration during your prayer until we thought that
    something happened or that you receive a revelation. The Prophet said:
    “None of this happened, but my son climbed over me and I hated to
    prevent him before he finishes what he was doing.”[18]


    Anas
    Ibn Malik, may Allah forgive him, narrated that the Prophet said:
    “Whenever I stand for prayer, I want to prolong it but on hearing the
    cries of a child, I would shorten it as I dislike to put its mother in
    trouble.”[19]


    Upbringing the Girls
    Upbringing and educating the girls and taking care of them have a
    special importance. The Prophet, peace be upon him, exalted the reward
    of anyone who take a good care of and educate the girls properly. The
    Prophet says: “He, who brought up two girls properly till they grew up,
    he and I would come (together) (very closely) on the Day of
    Resurrection, and he interlaced his fingers (for explaining the point of
    nearness between him and that person)” and he interlaced his
    fingers.[20]


    Therefore,
    there are highly important rights for children upon the parents. These
    rights were secured by Islam. The comprehensiveness and stages of these
    rights outdid all manmade systems and laws, either old or modern ones.
    Islam paid attention to children in all their life stages: Fetuses,
    suckling babies, children, adults and until they became mature men and
    women. Moreover, Islam was interested in them even before they become
    fetuses in their mothers’ wombs, by calling for the good selection of
    mothers and fathers…all that targets the production of righteous men and
    women for a society dominated by noble ethics and values.




    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    [1]Al
    Bukhari from Abi Huraira: Kitab al Qadar (Divine Will Book), chapter
    Allah Knows What They Would Have Done (6226), and Muslim: Kitab al Qadar
    (Divine Will Book), chapter The Meaning That No Child Is Born But Has
    The Islamic Faith And Judgment On The Death Of Disbelievers' Children
    And Muslims' Children (22)


    [2]
    Al Bukhari: Kitab an-Nikah (Wedlock and Marriage Book), chapter What A
    Man Should Say When Having Sexual Intercourse With His Wife (4767), and
    Muslim: Kitab an-Nikah (Wedlock and Marriage Book), chapter What Is
    Recommended To Be Said During Sexual Intercourse (1434)


    [3]Scholars
    say: The Prophet has dispraised the man's rhymed prose for two reasons:
    Firstly because he opposed Allah's law and wanted to annul it, and
    secondly because he feigned his speech and both aspects are regarded
    dispraised rhymed prose. Look: An-Nawawi: Al Minhaj Fi Sharh Sahih
    Muslim (The Minhaj In The Interpretation Of The Authenticated Hadiths Of
    Muslim) 11/178


    [4]Al
    Bukhari: Kitab at-Tib (Medicine Book), chapter Soothsaying (5426), and
    Muslim: Kitab Al-Qasama Wa'l-Muharaba Wa'l-Qisas Wa'l-Diyat (The Book
    Pertaining To The Oath, For Establishing The Responsibility Of Murders
    Fighting, Requital And Blood-Wit), chapter The Blood-Wit Of The Fetus,
    The Obligation Of Blood-Wit On Accidental Homicide And Manslaughter On
    The Sane Of The Felon (1682) and the text wording is his, and Abu
    Dawood: Kitab al Diyat (Blood-Wit Book), chapter Blood-Wit On Killed
    Fetus (4568), and an-Nasai (4825), and Ibn Hibban (6016), and corrected
    by al Albani: look, Erwa'a al Ghaleel (Quenching The Thirst) (2206)


    [5]Look:
    An-Nawawi: Al Minhaj Fi Sharh Sahih Muslim (The Minhaj In The
    Interpretation Of The Authenticated Hadiths Of Muslim) 11/175,176


    [6]Abu
    Dawood: Kitab al Adab (Good Manners Book), chapter Calling Azan In A
    Newborn's Ear (5107), and al Albani said: This is a good hadith, look:
    Sahih wa Dha'eef Sunan Abi Dawood (Sound And Weak Hadiths Of Adu Dawood)
    (5105)


    [7]There
    is a great wisdom behind putting chewed date in the mouth of a newborn.
    Scientific medical studies proved the benefits of giving a newborn
    child sugar. Percentage of sugar is low in the blood of newborns. The
    date contains a very high percentage of sugar. This Islamic practice
    protects the child, God's willing, from the implications of low sugar in
    blood. This is a medical inimitability the humanity never knew before
    and we were not aware of the dangers of low glucose sugar in a newborn's
    blood. For more information on this inimitability, look: Dr. Mohamed
    Ali el Bar: Article One Aspect of Childhood Caretaking in Islam: Putting
    Chewed Date in the Mouth of a Newborn Child and its Scientific
    Inimitability, the International Holy Quran Inimitability Panel. Use
    this link: http://www.nooran.org/O/4/4O11.htm


    [8]Abu
    Musa al Ashaari: Abdullah ibn Qais ibn Salim ibn Haddar ibn Harb ibn
    Amer was a companion of the Prophet Muhammad. The Prophet appointed him
    as governor of Zubaid and Aden. He was the governor of Kufa. Look: Ibn
    Saad: At-Tabaqat Al Kubra (The Book of the Major Classes) 4/105, and
    az-Zahabi: Siyar A'lam An-Nubala'a (The Lives of the Noble Figures)
    2/380


    [9]Al
    Bukhari: Kitab al Aqiqah (Sacrifice On Occasion Of Birth Book), chapter
    Naming a Newborn and Putting Date in Its Mouth (5045), and Muslim:
    Kitab al Adab (Good Manners Book), chapter It is Desirable to Put Chewed
    Date in The Mouth of a Newborn Child When It Is Born and Bringing It To
    a Virtuous Pious Person To Put Date in Its Mouth (3997)


    [10]Malik:
    Al Muwata – an early collection of Muslim law- Kitab al Aqiqah
    (Sacrifice On Occasion Of Birth Book), chapter What's Reported On Aqiqah
    (1840)


    [11]Abu
    Dawood (4950), an-Nasai (3568), Ahmed (19054), al Bukhari in his book
    Al Adab Al Mufrad (The Book of Manners) (814). Al Albani said: This is a
    right hadith, As-Silsilah As-Sahihah, (1040)


    [12]Ahmed
    (769), and the text wording is his, Malik (660), Ibn Hibban (6958), al
    Hakim (4773), who said: Its attribution is right and az-Zahabi agreed
    with him, and al Bukhari in his al Adab al Mufrad (The Book of Manners)
    (823) and Shu'ayb al Arna'out said: Its attribution is good.


    [13]Abu
    Dawood: Kitab Adhahaya (Sacrifices Book), chapter Aqiqah (Sacrifice On
    Occasion Of Birth) (2844), Ahmed (6822). Shu'ayb al Arna'out said: Its
    attribution is good, al Mustadrak (7592) who said this hadith's
    attribution is right. Az-Zahabi agreed with him. Al Albani said: This is
    a right hadith, look: As-Silsilah As-Sahihah ( 1655)


    [14]Natural
    breastfeeding for 12 months at least, but it is better to follow
    recommendations of the World Health Organization for breastfeeding for
    two whole years. Look: Hassan Shamsi Basha: Breastfeeding For Two Whole
    Years, an article at this link: http://dvd4arab.maktoob.com/showthread.php?t/60832


    [15]Al
    Bukhari from Abdullah Ibn Umar: Kitab al Etq (Book of emancipating
    slaves), (2416) and Muslim: OnPrincedom, chapter The Virtue of a Fair
    Imam and The Punishment of The Unfair One (1829)


    [16]Abu
    Dawood: Kitab as-Salat (Book of Prayer), chapter Child’s Commanded to
    Pray (495), Ahmed (6689), al Hakim (708) and al Albani said: A sound
    hadith, look: Sahih al Jami (The Sound Collections) (4026)


    [17]Al
    Bukhari: Kitab al Adab (Book of Good Manners and Form), chapter Having
    Mercy Upon The Child, Kissing Him and Cuddling Him (5651), and Muslim:
    Kitab al Fadha’il (Book of Virtues), chapter The Prophet’s Mercy Upon
    Children (2318)


    [18]An-Nasai
    (1141), Ahmed (27688), al Hakim (4775) and was corrected by az-Zahabi,
    Ibn Khuzaima (936), Ibn Hibban (2805) and al Albani based his argument
    about prolonging the bowing in prayer on this story, look: The Prophet’s
    Way of Prayer by al Albani, pp.148


    [19]Al
    Bukhari: Kitab Al Jamaa Wal Emama (Book Of Characteristics Of Prayer),
    chapter Shortening Prayer Due To The Cries Of A Baby (677), Ibn Maja
    (989), Ibn Khuzaima (1610), Ibn Hibban (2139), Abu Ya’la (3144) and al
    Bayhaqi in his Shu’ab Al Iman (Branches Of Faith) (11054)


    [font=tahoma][20]Muslim:
    Kitab Al-Birr Was-Salat-I-Wa'l-Adab (The Book Of Virtue, Good Manners
    And Joining Of The Ties Of Relationship), chapter Doing A Favor For
    Girls (2631), and the text wording is his, at-Tirmizi (1914), al Hakim
    (7350), and al Bukhari in his Al Adab Al Mufrad (Book of Good Manners)
    (894)












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